Chapter 6

How to protect yourself from social media identity theft

If you use social media, you could be a target for identity theft. You can buy identity theft insurance – or it might be included in your homeowners or renters policy. But taking simple steps to protect your social media accounts can help you avoid most scams.

  1. Don’t post ID cards

It might be tempting to post a photo of a new license or ID card, but it may include your birthday and other identifying data.

  • Question quizzes and surveys

Watch out for quizzes that ask for personal information. Scammers ask questions with answers you might use for security login questions, such as the model of your first car, your first pet’s name, or your hometown.

  • Don’t overshare

Most social media sites and apps ask you about yourself, then display that information on your profile. Be careful what you give them. The more a scammer knows about you, the easier it is to create a fake account with your information. If an app allows it, keep your profile private.

  • Limit app sharing

Many apps let you sign in with a more popular app. But when you do, you usually agree to let the new app use data from the old one. If one app is hacked, scammers can get data from every app linked to it.

  • Close old accounts

Scammers look for old, unused accounts with outdated passwords that are easy to hack. If you don’t use an app, delete your account.

  • Protect family members

Teens are the most likely to overshare. They usually have clean credit histories, which makes their identities valuable. Seniors don’t use social media as often but might not know when they’ve been hacked. It’s a good idea to check the accounts of family members in those groups.

For more information, click here.

Teaching Suggestions:

  • Ask students how they protect their social media accounts.  What precautions are particularly useful to protect their identity on the Internet?
  • Why are teens more likely to overshare their personal information on the social media?

Discussion Questions:

  1. What can regulatory agencies, such as, the Federal Trade Commission and Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, do to protect your social media accounts?
  2. Should Facebook, Instagram, Whats App, etc. provide clear guidance on what to post (or not to post) on social media sites?  How it might be done to protect consumers?
Categories: Chapter 6, Frauds and Scams, Identity Theft | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

Do you need identity theft insurance?

Victims of identity theft can be left with a bad credit record that can take months to correct. Here’s what you need to know about identity theft insurance and how to protect yourself.

  1. You may be covered

Some homeowners policies include coverage for identity theft. Check your policy or ask your agent to see if yours does. Other companies can add it to your homeowners or renter’s policy or sell you a stand-alone policy. These typically cost $25-$50 a year. Some credit monitoring services also provide identify theft protection or help with recovery.

2. What it includes

Identity theft insurance pays you back for what you spend to restore your identity and repair your credit. These costs can include fees, phone bills, lost wages, notary and certified mailing costs, and sometimes attorney fees. Some policies include credit monitoring and alerts and help you start the process to restore your identity. As with any insurance policy, make sure to know exactly what you’re purchasing and be sure to ask about deductibles and policy limits.

3. Is it worth it?

The U.S. Department of Justice reported recently that 7 percent of Americans were the victims of identity theft. Of those, half said it cost them less than $100, and 14 percent said they lost $1,000 or more. Banks and credit card companies already cover most or all losses due to fraud so most victims’ spend more time than money restoring their identity. However, complex cases can mean attorney’s fees and lost wages if you need to take off work, which could be covered by an identity theft policy.

4. How to protect yourself

You can take the following steps to protect yourself from identity theft:Be aware of your setting when you’re entering a credit card number or providing one over the phone. Make sure strangers can’t see or hear you.

Always tear up applications for “pre-approved” credit cards you get in the mail. Criminals may use them and try to activate the cards.

Never respond to unsolicited email that requests identifying data.

 For more information, click here.

Teaching Suggestions:

  • Ask students if they ever thought of purchasing identity theft insurance?  If so, did they purchase it or not?  What have been their experiences?
  • Ask students to make a list of steps to take to protect themselves from identity theft.

Discussion Questions:

  1. Why purchase identity theft insurance if it is already covered by your homeowners insurance policy?
  2. Under what circumstances is identity theft insurance necessary?  Is it worth it?  Explain.
Categories: Chapter 6, Frauds and Scams, Identity Theft | Tags: , | Leave a comment

New IRS imposter scam targets college students and staff

If you’re a college student, faculty, or staff member, pay attention to this scam. IRS imposters are sending phishing emails to people with “.edu” email addresses, saying they have information about your “tax refund payment.” What do they really want? Your personal information.

Scammers are sending emails with subject lines like, “Tax Refund Payment” or “Recalculation of your tax refund payment.” The email asks you to click a link and submit a form to claim your “refund.”

What happens if you click the link? The website asks for personal information, including your name, Social Security number (SSN), date of birth, prior year’s annual gross income (AGI), driver’s license number, address, and electronic filing PIN. Scammers can use or sell this information for identity theft.

The emails can look really real and include the IRS logo. But no matter what the email looks like or says, one thing stays true: the IRS will not first contact you by email. They will always start by sending you a letter. And, to confirm that it’s really the IRS, you can call them directly at 800-829-1040.

If you clicked a link in one of these emails and shared personal information, file a report at IdentityTheft.gov to get a customized recovery plan based on what information you shared.

If you spotted this scam, the IRS is asking you to forward the email as an attachment to phishing@irs.gov and at ReportFraud.ftc.gov.

For more information, click here.

Teaching Suggestions:

  • Ask students if they, their relatives or friends have received such scam emails.  If so, how did they respond to the scam?
  • Why have imposter scams increased so rapidly in the last few years?  What, if anything, can consumers do to avoid such scams?

Discussion Questions:

  1. Why is it important not to click on the links, even if they seem to be legitimate?
  2. If you clicked on such a link, what steps should you take to protect yourself and others from being scammed?
Categories: Chapter 3, Chapter 6, Frauds and Scams | Tags: , | Leave a comment

SCAM TRACKING MAP

Not everyone will be a victim of fraud, but everyone is a target. The AARP Fraud Watch Network offers a scam-tracking map to report fraud activity based on user-submitted information.

To help protect yourself and others, people are asked to report a scam they encounter.  The online form requests your zip code, method of contact (advertisement, door-to-door, Internet, e-mail, U.S. mail, or other), the type of scam, and the amount of money lost to the con artist. The list of scams includes more than 50 types, ranging from debt collection and charities to contests and online auctions.

Further assistance in reporting a scam is available at 1-877-908-3360.  AARP warns that it does not independently verify scam reports, nor guarantee the accuracy of reported scams.

Commonly suggested actions to avoid being taken by a scam include:

  • Only do business with reputable companies.
  • Understand contracts or other documents you sign.
  • Beware of impulse buying; con artists often tell you this is your last chance.
  • If it sounds too good to be true…it probably is!
  • STOP…WAIT…THINK…DON’T!

For additional information on the scam tracking map, click here.

Teaching Suggestions

  • Have students locate examples of current scams that have surfaced in their area.
  • Have students create a video with suggested actions to take to avoid being taken by a scam.

Discussion Questions 

  1. What are reasons that some people are easily deceived by frauds and scams?
  2. Describe actions that might be taken to avoid scams and fraud.
Categories: Chapter 6, Frauds and Scams | Tags: , | Leave a comment

Income Illusion

With record unemployment and the ongoing financial impact of the pandemic, many Americans are struggling to make ends meet — and scammers are pitching income scams with false promises of success and financial security.

In a typical pitch, scammers state that you can make a lot of money, for example, working from home with little time and effort, or starting your own online business. But those promises of big money are all an income illusion. In fact, in the first nine months of 2020 alone, Americans reported to the FTC that they lost at least $150 million. The total amount of alleged losses is over $1 billion.

Sometimes these scammers focus their pitches on particular communities.  In one case, a work-from-home scam targeted Latinas through Spanish language TV ads. In another case, an alleged investment scam affected older adults, retirees, and immigrants. And even veterans, students, and college-age adults are targeted with a business coaching scam.

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) found in income scams the average loss was less than $500. Americans who lost money were 44% more likely to live in majority Black communities.

How to Spot an Income Scam

Everyone can be targeted by income scams.  A scammer’s offer may tell you that:

  • Make money selling in your community. Be your own boss.
  • Learn from the experts how to generate guarantee income.
  • You got the job! Deposit this check and send money or buy gift cards.
  • Work from home and make money with little time and effort!
  • Just recruit more people to make big money!

Before you accept a business offer:

  • Take your time

Avoid high pressure sales pitches that require you get involved now or risk losing out.

  • Be skeptical about success stories and testimonials.

Glowing stories could be fake and online reviews may have come from made-up profiles.

  • Don’t bank on a “cleared” check.

If you’re told to send some money or buy gift cards, you can bet it’s a fake even if you see the   money in your account.

  • Do your research.

Search online for the company’s name plus words like “review,” “scam,” or “complaints.

For more information, click here.

Teaching Suggestions

  • Ask students if they, their friends, or families have received such offers from scammers. If so, how did they respond?
  • Ask students what they would personally do to fight income scams and help people recognize and avoid them.

Discussion Questions

  1. Why do scammers focus their pitches on particular communities?
  2. Why is it important to search online for company’s name plus words like “review”, “scams”, and “complaints” before making a decision”?
Categories: Chapter 6, Consumer Complaints, Frauds and Scams | Tags: , | Leave a comment

IRS Dirty Dozen Tax Schemes

Each year, the IRS warns taxpayers about the “Dirty Dozen” tax scams.  Some of these cons show up on the list each year, while others are new. Tax scams are most common during tax season or times of crisis. The COVID pandemic created opportunities to try steal money and information from taxpayers.

Taxpayers are reminded to beware of these ongoing swindles that include:

  • Phishing involves fake emails or websites to obtain personal information. The IRS never initiates contact by email. Do not click on links claiming to be from the IRS. Also be wary of keywords, such as “coronavirus,” “COVID-19,” and “Stimulus.”
  • Fake charities are a reoccurring concern. Criminals often take advantage of natural disasters and other situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, to set up a phony charity, and may even claim to be working with the IRS to help victims.
  • Threatening impersonator phone calls claim to be collecting money for the IRS. The scammer uses fear and urgency to demand immediate payment. Senior citizens and their caregivers should be especially alert for this type of fraud.
  • Unscrupulous return preparers, called “ghost” preparers, expose their clients to serious filing mistakes and tax fraud. Ghost preparers do not sign the tax returns they prepare, as required by law. While most tax professionals provide honest service, others should be avoided.
  • Fake payments with repayment demands involve scammers tricking taxpayers into sending them their refund. The criminal steals or obtains personal data to file a bogus tax return. Once the money is in the bank account, the criminal poses as an IRS employee to request that the money be returned immediately, perhaps in the form of gift cards.

Some recent tax scams that have surfaced include

  • Offer-in-compromise mills involves misleading tax debt resolution companies exaggerating their ability to settle tax debts for “pennies on the dollar.” The offer requires that taxpayers meet certain legal requirements. Dishonest businesses enroll unqualified candidates to collect hefty fees from taxpayers already deep in debt.
  • Economic impact payment or refund theft, in which criminals filed false tax returns or bogus information with the IRS to redirect refunds to a wrong address or bank account.
  • Social media scams may use COVID-19 to trick people. The scammer uses information on social media to send emails pretending to be a family member, friend, or co-worker, which can result in tax-related identity theft.
  • Ransomware takes advantage of human and technical weaknesses to infect a computer, network, or server. Invasive software (malware) can track keystrokes and other computer activity. An infected computer can allow access to personal and financial data. Or, a ransom request appears in a pop-up window.

To avoid these scams: (1) be aware of potential cons; (2) check with the IRS or your bank if something is suspicious; (3) keep your computer system and passwords secure, and (4) avoid deals that are “too good to be true.”

For additional information on tax scams, click here.

Teaching Suggestions

  • Have students describe these situations to other people, and ask them what actions they might take to avoid these scams.
  • Have students create a video or visual presentation to warn others of these potential scams.

Discussion Questions 

  1. Why do some people get taken by tax scams and other frauds?
  2. Describe actions that might be taken to avoid various tax scams.
Categories: Chapter 3, Chapter 6, Frauds and Scams, Taxes | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

ELECTRIC CARS

As technology improves, electric vehicles, also referred to as EVs, are increasing in popularity. The benefits of EV are the result of:

  • being environmentally friendly with no emissions
  • nearly silent engine sound
  • potential tax credits have been available in recent years
  • lower operating costs and maintenance expenses
  • smartphone apps to program charging times and to heat or cool the passenger cabin in advance of driving

Common concerns associated with EVs include:

  • the higher initial cost
  • short driving ranges for some models and in cold weather and on steep inclines
  • slow charging time, which are improved with new technology
  • charging stations may not always be available
  • loss of cargo space for the battery pack
  • lower towing capacities than with a conventional vehicle

The two main EV types are battery electric vehicles (BEVs) only running on electricity, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that use electricity for a limited distance before switching to a gas-electric hybrid mode. Some models have an onboard generator to create electricity for greater driving distances.

For additional information on electric cars, go to:

Link #1

Link #2

Link #3

Teaching Suggestions

  • Have students conduct online research to determine current models, prices, and operating costs of electric cars.
  • Have students conduct an interview with someone who owns an electric car or hybrid to obtain information about the person’s experiences.

Discussion Questions 

  1. What factors should a person consider when buying an electric car?
  2. Describe future developments that might make electric cars more attractive to car buyers.
Categories: Chapter 6, Wise Shopping | Tags: | Leave a comment

Beware: Subscription Services

With growing numbers of video streaming services and product box programs, these subscriptions are becoming the newest budget buster. These seemingly small monthly charges add up, lowering a person’s ability to save along with a potential for increased debt. These ongoing financial commitments leave people with a lower percentage of free cash flow, or unencumbered income.

Subscription service spending is often overlooked especially when the payments are on auto pilot. A $4 or $8 monthly fee may not seem like much. However, research indicates that subscription services are an increasing financial burden as most people underestimate the amount. In one study, 84 percent of respondents estimated monthly spending on these services at about $80; the actual amount was over $110. In addition to video steaming services, people sign up for automatic monthly shipments of beer, wine, contact lenses, cosmetics, meal kits, pet food, razors, vitamins, and other products.

For additional information on subscription services, click here.

Teaching Suggestions

  • Have students survey several people to determine the types and amounts of subscription services being used.
  • Have students create a financial analysis for amounts saved over several years by reducing or eliminating subscription services.

Discussion Questions 

  1. What factors influence a person’s decision to use a subscription service?
  2. Describe suggested actions that a person might take to reduce or eliminate subscription services.
Categories: Budget, Chapter 2, Chapter 6 | Tags: , | Leave a comment

Anchoring Your Personal Finance Decisions

To spend less and save more, consider an “anchoring” system.  One example of an anchor is the price of an item to determine if that is an appropriate amount of money to spend for the item.

Anchors prevent shoppers from being overwhelmed by the many choices, prices, and features.  You can create your own anchors by:

  • setting the maximum price you are willing to spend for an item.
  • considering the value of an item in relation to the number of hours you have to work to pay for it.
  • comparing the cost in relation to another item. If you buy coffee costing $2.50 a cup and want a sweater costing $50, view the sweater as costing 20 cups of coffee. Your “coffee” anchor will help you determine how valuable the sweater is to you.

When buying a home, you may be encouraged to look at properties outside your price range.  Anchoring yourself at a price limit will avoid overspending, make you feel more in control, and encourage wiser financial decisions.

For additional information on financial anchoring, click here.

Teaching Suggestions

  • Have students talk to several people to obtain information about how they determine the price they are willing to pay for an item.
  • Have students create a video presentation that demonstrates various anchoring methods.

Discussion Questions 

  1. How might anchoring help improve personal financial literacy and money management activities?
  2. Describe anchors people might used to determine the price they would be willing to pay for an item.
Categories: Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Financial Planning, Wise Shopping | Tags: , | Leave a comment

Personal Finance Hacks

Hacks – skills and shortcuts – are used in many life settings.  For personal finance, here are some tips that can help stop money leakages:

  • Only use credit cards with financial advantages, such as cashback; always pay off credit card balances on time.
  • Making weekly payments, instead of monthly, helps to save interest and reduces the amount owed faster.
  • Pay off loans/debts with the highest interest rates first.
  • You might consider paying off a debt with another loan if the new loan has a much lower interest rate.
  • When shopping online, leave the item in the cart for several days or weeks; the price may be lower or you may decide you don’t really need the item.
  • Consider bulk purchases with friends to qualify for free shipping.
  • Take advantage of seasonal sales.
  • Unsubscribe from email offers.
  • Avoid household clutter to save time and money.
  • Cook your own meals; online videos and recipes offer fast, easy meals.
  • Talk to others for investment advice.

For additional information on personal finance hacks, click here.

Teaching Suggestions

  • Have students tell their personal experience with tech, travel, or personal finance hacks.
  • Have students create a video to dramatize various personal finance hacks.

Discussion Questions 

  1. How would you decide if a personal hack will be of value to you?
  2. Describe actions that might be used to communicate personal finance hacks to others.
Categories: Chapter 1, Chapter 3, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 8, Financial Planning, Wise Shopping | Tags: , | Leave a comment

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